2007年10月10日 星期三

《債與命》導演 史提芬妮.布萊克(Stephanie Black)專訪


Stephanie Black first went to Jamaica while making her award-winning documentary H-2 Worker. Life and Debt continues her tradition of polemical filmmaking.

BBC Four: There's been growing interest in globalisation recently with books like No Logo and media coverage of various demonstrations. Did that influence your decision to make your film now?
近期隨著像No Logo這類書籍及媒體多方面的實證報導帶起了全球化風潮。請問您決定拍攝【債與命】是否受到這股風潮的影響?

Stephanie Black: Absolutely not - it's just coincidence. I started working on this film in 1992. When I was in Jamaica [making H-2 Worker] I kept asking myself how a country this rich could be this poor. I kept reading about the IMF and the World Bank and never understood at that time that the IMF had such a far-reaching arm on everyday policies of the country. I thought the IMF was like the Red Cross!

In the United States of course we don't borrow money from the IMF so there's no way to get that same kind of understanding, particularly as our media didn't cover that at all at that time. So the lack of transparency of the institutions and also my interest in understanding this issue that has somehow been left out of my education was what motivated me to make the film.

BBC Four: The film also touches on tourism in Jamaica. Why did you decide to frame the film around that ?

SB: There's a certain lack of information inherent in American society in the same way that tourists might visit a country and not know what's beyond the boundaries of their hotel. That was a metaphor for me for the situation here where we often don't think about the impact of US policies. It was a way to ask the viewer, "What is my culpability in all of this?"

What was very striking while making the film was how everyone in Jamaica can explain what these policies are and their impact but you can take a college-educated student here and they would be very hard pressed to explain the same information. Yet we hold the strongest voting power in the IMF and nothing can actually be changed in Third World countries unless it has the full backing of the G8. So the use of the tourists was not in any way addressing tourism. It was a really a metaphor that was reinforced by the use of the Jamaica Kincaid text.

BBC Four: Finally, this year marks the 40th anniversary of Jamaican independence. What's your sense from working and living there about whether it's been a good thing or a bad thing?

SB: The broad majority of people feel exceptionally that it's a good thing. Of course, there is a small minority of people who disagree. What's unfortunate is the IMF and the World Bank end up being a really important presence in countries with a colonial history. So just at the moment when some of the vestiges of colonialism are disappearing, the IMF come in and almost prey on those vestiges that are set up from another agenda. In Jamaica's case and in many countries around the world there is a need for capital after colonialism and the only way countries can get that it is by borrowing from the IMF.

I think this is an unfortunate truth and a lot of people who fought against going to the IMF in the 1970s and had such vision for their country post-independence have had all their worst fears confirmed. It would be very difficult to turn back the tide at this particular moment. So while it's important that Jamaica was granted its independence it was never allowed to develop itself in a way that its people envisioned. (abridged)
不幸的是,許多曾在 70年代抵制加入IMF的人,早已洞悉後獨立時期將面臨的危機,而今,這些埋藏在心底的恐懼,也已得到印證。在這個特殊的時刻卻也無法扭轉這個趨勢。所以,雖然牙買加終於能夠獨立,但是卻也注定他們永遠無法依照自己的想法自主發展的命運。

本文節錄至BBC Four 對導演的專訪/譯文由龍應台文化基金會義工熱心翻譯

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